This report examines state and non-state initiatives on the national and EU levels that aid municipalities in addressing the challenges of urban sustainability. Emblematic examples of practices are described to provide a glimpse of the diversity of practice to be found in Europe and relevant conceptual insights drawing on the academic literature are presented. Main findings include the importance of adopting a multi-level perspective; a gap in academic knowledge on practices originating from national and EU levels; the ongoing constraints found in cities; the need for further research on cities outside the high performing category; and a more general need to conduct detailed context-specific empirical research on the influence of practices in European cities.