The aim of this Pocacito Policy Brief is to give an overview of the rapid urbanisation in China and the country’s planned responses. It shows the strong dynamic in China towards low-carbon urban development. In addition to the low-carbon pilot projects in provinces and cities, China has launched national low-carbon industrial pilot parks, including green transportation provinces and cities, green highways and green ports. Instead of a taking a top-down approach, China is implementing a large variety of low-carbon pilot projects or policies to test different approaches at provincial, city and community levels and then incorporating successful elements into state-level pilots. Insights gleaned from these efforts may be valuable for the EU, especially in those areas where Europe is less advanced, such as industrial low-carbon pilot projects or urban-emissions trading. At the same time, the growing number of pilot projects in China may offer additional opportunities for the EU to transfer know-how or technologies in areas where the EU is a global leader, such as in bio-energy technologies, wastewater treatment or urban logistics. But China can benefit also from the EU’s experiences. More frequent interaction at the city-to-city level will therefore play an important role, with Chinese experts gaining in-depth understanding from the EU’s experiences, which they can disseminate in a way that is accessible to Chinese stakeholders and policymakers.