The Leibniz-Institut für Regionalentwicklung und Strukturplanung (IRS) is a Leibniz research institute that explores the transformation and governance of cities and regions from a social science perspective. To this end, research is organised in interdisciplinary teams with long-term research concerns. Research Department 2 at IRS examines institutional arrangements and forms of governance with regard to the use of public goods. Particular attention is paid to multi-level institutional systems, cross-sectoral interactions and the emergence of new spatial policy arenas. Recent research projects focus on (i) the spatial dimension of the German energy transition (Energiewende), in particular the role cities and regions play for this transformation; (ii) local energy and climate governance; (iii) sustainable cities; and (iv) transnational city networks.